Primary school - Ukrainian education in emergency
Primary school

School education begins for children at the age of 6. A child can go to school either one year earlier or one year later, depending on the decision of the parents and taking into account the child’s readiness to learn. Children with special educational needs can start their studies at a different age, and the duration of their primary school education can be extended. The basis for this is the conclusion of the inclusive resource centre.

Primary education in Ukraine lasts 4 years and is divided into two cycles:

  • adaptive play (1-2 years of study), when training takes place using an activity-based approach on an integrated basis and with a predominance of game-like methods;
  • basic (3-4 years of study), which provides for integrated subject training.

Since 2018, primary school students have started studying under the curriculum for a 12-year complete general secondary education.

In Ukraine, for the first year of study, lessons cannot exceed 35 minutes, and for 2-4 years of study – 40 minutes.

The requirements for learning outcomes are determined taking into account the competency-based approach and are approved by the government in the State Standard for Primary Education.

Thus, the requirements are defined for the following education areas:

  • language and literature: Ukrainian language, languages of relevant indigenous peoples and national minorities; literature; Ukrainian language and literature for indigenous peoples and national minorities;
  • foreign language education;
  • mathematics;
  • natural science;
  • technology;
  • information technology;
  • society and health-saving;
  • citizenship and history;
  • art;
  • physical education.

The educational program of an educational institution and the curricula that educational institutions can develop independently within the framework of academic autonomy must comply with the state standard.

Please find below examples of typical curriculums.

Assessment

Primary schools do not have a point-based assessment system. Instead, they use:

  • formative assessment – on a regular basis,
  • as well as the final assessment, the object of which is the learning achievements of the year.

Thus, grade points are replaced by verbal and level assessment or other systems that educational institutions can develop independently.

At the end of each academic year, students receive a Certificate of Achievement. It defines the following:

  • characteristics of educational activities and learning outcomes in education areas (in the first cycle – verbally with an indication of whether the expected outcome has been formed or is still being formed; in the second cycle – either verbally, as in grades 1-2, or using a level assessment (high/sufficient/medium/beginner).
  • teacher’s recommendations, parents ‘ wishes
  • decision of the pedagogical council to transfer a student to the next grade

After completing primary school (in the 4th grade), students pass the final state examination – in the Ukrainian language and mathematics. If a student received primary education in the language of national minorities or indigenous peoples and was abroad and began to study the Ukrainian language in the current academic year, instead of examination in the Ukrainian language, such a student can pass the examination in the language of instruction (at the request of one of the parents or other legal representatives and by decision of the pedagogical council).

After completing primary school, children receive a primary school certificate.

Due to russia’s war against Ukraine, the state final examination in the 2021/2022 academic year was cancelled by the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine.

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